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Volume VI Number 4 


Editorial John Collier 1 

Reorganization News 3 

The "North Star" Back From Annual Arctic 

Voyage 4 

The Value Of Administrative Experience 

To A Scholar 7 

How The Indian Service Gets And Spends 

Its Funds 11 

Indian Women Given Important Places 

In Tribal Affairs 16 

Trichinosis: A Disease Acquired By- 
Eating Uncooked Pork 18 

The Pokegama Bridge Robert J. Trier 19 

Vitality Of Hopi Designs Lives 21 

Indian Service Collects Further D a ta On 

Sulfanilamide As Trachoma Treatment 22 

Voluntary Overtime Maintains Enrollee 

Program At Red Lake, Minnesota Stanford L. Oksness 23 

New Examination For Indian Service 

Teachers 25 

From Mrs • Roosevelt' s Column: "My Day" 26 

A Colorful Eskimo Group - St . Lawrence 

Island, Alaska T. P. Hinckley 27 

" Indian Giver" - A Misnomer Reginald K. Laubin 29 

More Complete Information In Inter- 
Agency Transfers Sought John Collier 32 

Employees With Long Service Records 

Retire 34 

Sequoyah Honored As Important Figure In 

The Art Of Letters 34 

Recent Changes Of Assignment 35 

WPA Projects At Potawatomi Are Many- 

Sided 35 

It's Not The Number Of Words That 

Counts D. B. Sanford 36 

Open-Door Laboratories and Demonstra- 
tions as Tuberculosis Prevention 

Measures Joseph D. Aronson 37 

Chippewa Girl Represents Mahnomen 

County 4-H Clubs Eugene Zemans 39 

Vicente Mirabal Wins Poster Competition 39 

Indians In The News Harold L . Turner 40 

Bull Hollow Camp Orchestra 41 

Indians Trained For Construction Ma- 
chinery Jobs At Wind River Thomas J . Duran 42 

Pueblos Fulfill Stock Reduction Agree- 
ment for Third Time ^ 

From CCC-ID Reports 43 


A News Sheet for Indians 
and the Indian Service 


I have before me The Final Report of TC-BIA on the Lower 
Brule Reservation, South Dakota. It is called a "Human Dependency 
and Economic Survey." The document is as readable as it is com- 
prehensive and - I use the word advisedly - profound. The picture 
it gives is a dark one - yet rays of present light pierce that dark- 
ness. As for what could be - as a practical matter, given enough of 
consecutive, planned effort - the report shows that a happy future 
is possible for the Lower Brules. 

I here cite but one or two striking facts • These ninety- 
six families own, or have the use of, 140,406 acres of land. Yet 
of their total income (in cash and kind) only 18 per cent comes 
from the land; and "only 9.7 per cent of the total reservation in- 
come is secured through the application (by Indians) of labor to 
the natural resources of the reservation." 

What about the income of the Lower Brules? That averages 
$692 per family. Of this total, 49 per cent is relief income - di- 
rect and work relief. Of the total income, 67 per cent is derived 
from governmental sources. 

That is an unsound economy, surely. It will be a fatal 
economy if it continues very long. 

The report analyzes the causes, and in detail lays down 
the remedies. A basic livestock economy must be developed. A 
"limited but fundamental agriculture" is practicable. Some reset- 
tlement of population is indicated. The smothering crazy-quilt 
that allotment and heirship have sewn together must and can be un- 

Such a report as this one - developed in cooperation 
with the administrative forces of Indian Service upon the reserva- 
tion - is a deep-reaching challenge to the Indians and Indian Of- 
fice alike. It is one of a series of TC-BIA reports. Its con- 
tent and method are valuable for all the Plains Area, all the al- 
lotted area, even the whole Indian country. 

But is Lower Brule a uniquely troubling case? And are 
Indians the only people situated as the Lower Brules are? 

Another report recently has come to the Indian Office. 
It is even more exhaustive than the Lower Brule Report. This lat- 
ter report is called "A Study of Economic Conditions on the Uintah 
Project, Utah," and is made by the Irrigation Division of the In- 
dian Office pursuant to authority granted by Congress. 

Here is a picture of bad land--use planning of years gone 
by, complicated with official insincerity, even humbug, of past 
years. Here are populations lured into settling a remote region 
within the framework of an economic plan whose unsoundness could 
have been told them by the wise Brigham Young eighty years ago. 
Here are stranded populations, and Indians share their mental con- 
fusion and distress. Hot as much as a 15 per cent efficiency has > 
been achieved in the use of the natural resources of the Uintah 

This important, very fundamental report, unfortunately, 
cannot as yet be distributed to more than a few readers, because 
of its bulk and the costliness of reproducing it. 

These two pictures could be offset by others of startling 
contrast. Mescalero, San Carlos, Jicarilla, for example; Metlakatla, 
Swinomish, Menominee, the Pueblos. The picture from white rural e- 
conomy could be similarly offset. But it is well - it is essential - 
for us Indian Service workers to keep ourselves reminded of those 
parts of our task which are only barely commenced as yet, and those 
challenges which, as yet, we do not know that we have the strength 
or skill to meet • 

The Eighth International Conference of American States, 
at Lima, Peru, begins December 9, 1938. That Conference will not 

deal extensively with Indian matters as such, because Indian mat- 
ters are toeing concentrated into the special inter -American confer- 
ence on the Indian, scheduled for La Paz, Bolivia, next year. How- 
ever, at Lima there is likely to he discussion of the fact that In- 
dian welfare interests are one of the matters which logically 
should hind the many countries together in thought and purpose. 
Countries having important Indian populations are Canada, United 
States, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela, 
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil. Even Argen- 
tina has its Indians. Were it possible to set up, through coopera- 
tion of the Americas, an operating office to serve as a clearing 
house of data on Indians, what a wealth of information would flow 
through that off icel A number of the countries now are working 
seriously, in an experimental spirit, upon their Indian problems. 
The present and past of Indian policy in the hemisphere is a whole 
great chapter in wise and unwise statesmanship, which would be of 
interest to thoughtful people the world over. The American coun- 
tries now realize that Indians are quite the opposite of a vanish- 
ing race. Numerically, culturally and politically they are a ris- 
ing race. Probably there were twelve or thirteen million Indians 
when Columbus discovered America. There are some thirty million 

" Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


On October 8 the Mole Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of 
Wisconsin accepted their constitution by a vote of 61 to 8. The 
Southern Utes of Colorado accepted their charter on November 1 by 
a vote of 87 to 3. 

In Alaska, where the practice of voting on constitutions 
and charters at the same time is being used, organization is forg- 
ing ahead. The votes of several communities are e'.ven below: 

Constitution Charter 

Yes No Yes No 

October 4 Klawock 145 1 147 

October 10 Craig 77 1 76 1 

October 11 Sitka 145 3 . 146 3 

October 15 • Kasaan 37 37 


The North Star 

The "North Star", Indian Service diesel-engined ship, 
has just come hack to its home port in Seattle, after a journey of 
four months up and hack the Alaska coast. All the way up to Point 
Barrow, the northernmost point on the North American continent, 
the 225-foot vessel plied its way on its annual journey of deliver- 
ing supplies and passengers to Indian Service posts in isolated 
areas . 

On the Indian Service falls the responsibility of educa- 
tion and health work among Alaska natives, who include Indians, 
Aleuts and Eskimos numbering in all some 30,000. In 1937, super- 
vision over the Alaskan reindeer industry was also transferred to 
the Indian Office- The Indian Service now operates 97 day schools 
in Alaska, two boarding schools and seven small hospitals. It em- 
ploys in its health work ten full-time physicians, 50 nurses, and 
49 other employees . 

In carrying on its health and educational program, the 
Indian Service has had to ship from Seattle large quantities of 
building materials, equipment and supplies, and to furnish trans- 
portation to employees. Many of the stations are far off the path 
of any commercial carriers and in order to get its supplies and 
its personnel in, the Indian Service formerly had to charter what- 
ever sailing schooners were available. Some of these proved none 
too seaworthy, and in the old days uncertainty, loss of freight, 
and even loss of employees' lives en route to their stations, were 
part of the administrative scheme of things. Continuous storms 
and fogs sometimes forced the chartered vessels to return to Seat- 
tle with their entire shipment for isolated stations undelivered; 
sometimes deliveries were made on a beach a hundred miles from 
their destinations; sometimes cargoes were hopelessly mixed. Schools 
and hospitals were often faced with the prospect of operating a 
full year with supplies which were inadequate, incorrect, or prac- 
tically minus • 

In 1920, to facilitate delivery of supplies to its Alaska 
stations, the Department of the Interior secured the transfer from 
the Navy Department of the sailing vessel "Boxer", which was trans- 
formed into a diesel-engine ship and which made its first voyage to 
Alaska in 1923. Its capacity was only 450 tons of freight; however, 
while it rendered fine service to isolated posts, it soon proved in- 
adequate for the task. A special appropriation made under the con- 
struction and employment program of 1930 was secured, and a larger 
vessel , the "North Star" , was built in Seattle and completed in 
early 1932- The newer vessel can carry 1,600 tons of freight and 
26 passengers in addition to its crew of 26. 

Both of these ships are in operation today, carrying 
freight and employees from Seattle to Alaska, not only for the In- 
dian Service, but also for other agencies of the Department of the 
Interior, for other Government departments, and for territorial 

Some of the Indian Service stations in Alaska are so 
isolated that their only contact with the outside world, except 
radio, is the annual visit of one of these ships. Then the Chief 
of the Alaska Section of the Indian Office, D. B. Thomas, went to 
Alaska in 1934, he picked up at Bethel, on the Kuskokwim Eiver, 
telegrams and correspondence for Nelson Island and Nunivak Island 
which had been mailed from Washington, D. C. ten months before. 
Two of the telegrams notified the teachers that Public Works al- 
lotments had been made available for much-needed improvements and 
for roads and trails. Also arriving in this mall was subsequent 
correspondence, six months old, which asked for detailed reports 
of the work performed under the PWA, with figures on mnn-hours of 
labor, etc. "What is this P.W.A?" asked the teachers, when Mr. 

Thomas and the year's mall arrived simultaneously . "What is this 
money, and what are we supposed to have done with it?" 

Mr transportation, of course, has made it possible for 
mail to certain areas to get through, even in the winter; but even 
airmail cannot always be certain. The mail piles up sometimes to 
more than capacity, and the bulkier material, not always the least 
important, is left behind for the next flight. 

Other isolated stations visited by the North Star include 
St. Lawrence Island, which is only about forty miles from the Si- 
berian coast, and which is inhabited by' Eskimos more closely related 
to the Siberian Chuckchees than our American Eskimos; also Diomede 
Island, close to the international boundary. The Eskimos from both 
of these islands visit their relatives in Siberia each summer for 
trading and social gatherings, and recently arrangements were made 
with the U.S.S.R. for the issuance by Indian Service teachers of 
permits and identification certificates, to be recognized by Soviet 
officials, to give official sanction to these visits. 

Another example of the vastness of Alaska and the isola- 
tion of its posts is the Island of Attu, in the Aleutian group. 
Attu is in the eastern hemisphere: when one reaches it, he steps 
over the international date line into tomorrow. 

Included in the North Star's cargo this year was finish- 
ing lumber for the completion of the new hospital at Point Barrow, 
isolated post "on the top" of Alaska, whose earlier hospital, 
managed by the Board of Presbyterian Missions, burned in February 
1937. Supplies were delivered to many stations along the coast, 
and reindeer carcasses were obtained from native cooperative as- 
sociations to be sold at various Alaskan towns on the return trip 
to Seattle. As the ice closed in after the North Star's visit, 
these small communities, fortified by mail and fresh supplies, 
settled down for another winter cut off from "outside." 

Back in Seattle, the North Star will not be used by the 
Indian Service until the late spring. The vessel is available 
during the winter months, however, for transporting freight for the 
Alaska Railroad , the Alaska Rehabilitation Corporation, the Alaska 
Road Commission and other agencies of the Government. 

Among passengers on the "North Star" this year from Nome 
to Point Barrow and back were the party, of which Mrs. Wiley Post 
was a member, which placed a monument in memory of Will Rogers and 
Wiley Post, whose plane crashed about fifteen miles south of Point 
Barrow in 1935 . 


John Stuart Mill was the representative thinker of the 
England of the middle of the last century. His influence was uni- 
versal equally in the scholarly and the popular field. Logician, 
philosopher, economist, and a writer of hooks which are Btill clas- 
sic on the position of woman, on liberty, and on representative 
government, Herbert Spencer was sparing in his praise of anybody 
but concerning Mill he wrote: 

"No one thinker, so far as I know, has ever 
had anything like equal influence in the forty 
years or so that have elapsed since Mill's domin- 
ion began to weaken." "To dilate on Mill's achieve- 
ments," said Herbert Spencer, "and to insist upon 
the wideness of his influence over the thought of 
his time, and consequently over the action of hie 
time , seems to me superfluous ." 

Mill occupied an administrative position in India House, 
England's administrative center for the government of India- His 
autobiography contains the following: 

"The occupation (he says) accustomed me to see 
and hear the difficulties of every course, and the 
means of obviating them, stated and discussed de- 
liberately with a view to execution; it gave me op- 
portunities of perceiving when public measures and 
other political facts did not produce the effects 
which had been expected of them; above all, it was 
valuable to me by making me, in this portion of my 
activity, merely one wheel in a machine, the whole 
of which had to work together. As a speculative 
writer I should have had no one to consult but my- 
self. But as a secretary conducting political cor- 
respondence, I could not issue an order or express 
an opinion without satisfying various persons very 
unlike myself that the thing was fit to be done... 
I became practically conversant with the difficul- 
ties of moving bodies of men, the necessities of 
compromise, the art of sacrificing the non-essen- 
tial to preserve the essential. I learnt how to 
obtain the best I could when I could not obtain 
everything; instead of being indignant or dispir- 
ited because I could not have entirely my own way, 
to be pleased and encouraged when I could have 
the smallest part of it; and when even that could 
not be, to bear with complete equanimity the being 
overruled altogether." (Autobiography - p. 85.) 

J. C. 



\y fUts MS 


' MSB 



Watching a Dance at Fort Hall, Idaho 

Indian-Built Meeting House of Tule Reeds, 
Mission Agency, California 


Indian-Built Community House, Typical of the 
Northern Plains Country. 

Dance of the Brave Hearts, Sioux Society at 

Fort Peck Agency, Held in the Round House at 

Riverside, Montana- 

Some Of The Forms Used In Getting And Spending Indian Service Money 
(For explanation, see bottom of opposite page.) 







I N D 

[ A N 


E E 











T S F 

S P 

U N D 

E N 

D S 

The Box Eld- 
er Public School Dis- 
trict No. 13 in Mon- 
tana get 8 a check for 
$64.44 in payment for 
a month's tuition and lunches for the Rocky Boy Indian children 
who attend. At Colville, in Washington, the fire guard, whose job 
it is to protect Indian timber, gets his semi-monthly check from 
the agency at Nespelem. In North Dakota a local merchant is paid 
for fresh fruits and vegetables delivered to the Fort Totten School. 
In Arizona, a supply of pipe is delivered to the Pima Agency to re- 
pair the irrigation system. In Oklahoma, the Indian hospital at 
Fort Sill buys a supply of diapers for its baby ward. The Washing- 
ton Office of the Indian Service purchases a new typewriter. 

Where does the money for these financial transactions 
come from? Who authorized them? How did the local Indian Serv- 
ice authorities know how much they could spend? Who signed the 
checks for the transactions; and what assurance did their recipi- 

Explanation Of Forms On Left-hand Page 

Upper left ; Treasury Department appropriation warrant, 
countersigned by the General Accounting Office, which made current 
funds available for the Indian Service. 

Lower Ri ght ; Requisition which transferred Indian Of- 
fice funds from the Treasury to the official checking account of 
G. F. Allen, Chief of the Division of Disbursement of the Treasury. 

Upper Right ; Typical annual budget authority for an In- 
dian Service unit: This letter to Superintendent Bowler of Carson 
Agency in Nevada explains what funds are available for expenditure. 

Center Right : On basis of such an authority, Indian 
Service superintendents submit to the Washington Office requests 
for advance of funds to the appropriate U. S. Treasury regional 
disbursing officer. This happens to be from Superintendent Donner 
of Fort Apache Agency in Arizona, requesting transfer of funds to 
the Treasury Office in Albuquerque. 

Lower Left : In accordance with such requests, the 
Treasury's Chief of the Division of Disbursement, has been requested 
to transfer funds to the various regional offices: In this case, 
funds requested by the Five Civilized Tribes Agency in Muskogee, 
Oklahoma, are to be transferred to the Treasury's office in Kansas 
City, Missouri. 


ents have that the checks would not "bounce?" The story of how 
government appropriations are made and apportioned, and how they 
reach the destinations for which they are intended, is a compli- 
cated and fascinating one - 

Let us assume that the transactions given as examples 
are current ones, being made now. 

The ball started rolling to pay the Montana Public School 
District, the Colville fire guard and the others, almost two years 
before . 

A year ago last summer, that is, in 1937, the Indian 
Service workers at the Colville Agency, at Pima in Arizona, and at 
the many other Indian Service units submitted estimates to the Wa- 
shington Office of the money which would be needed to operate their 
units for the fiscal year 1939. The Washington financial officers 
of the Service checked, combined and revised these figures in the 
light of past experience and probable future needs. Weeks were 
spent in the review of field estimates - in conference between di- 
vision heads and the finance officer, and finally in preparing sup- 
porting schedules and justifications, required in connection with 
the complicated Indian Service estimates. The completed estimates 
total about 1,300 mimeographed pages annually. 

Next, the Indian Service estimates are sent to the office 
of Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, where they are checked, 
and combined with the estimates of the other Interior Department 
bureaus to form the estimates of the entire Department. 

By fall of 1937, the Indian Service estimates, now a part 
of the Departmental estimates, go to the Bureau of the Budget, whose 
business it is to know the financial needs of every arm of the Gov- 
ernment, to review estimates and appropriations and to harmonize 
varying demands. The Budget Bureau considers these estimates, and, 
after hearings in which Interior Department representatives explain 
and justify their needs, revises the Department's budget and makes 
it a part of the total budget of the Federal Government, and sends 
it to the President. The provisions for the Pima pipe, the Montana 
school children's tuition, the fire guard's pay and the Oklahoma 
hospital diapers, are now a part of the entire estimate of what it 
will take to run the Government of the United States for the fiscal 
year which will end in July 1939 - 

The President sends the budget to Congress, which refers 
it to the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representa- 
tives. It is by now January 1938, and Congress has just convened. 

In considering appropriations, the House of Representa- 
tives Committee on Appropriations breaks up into subcommittees, 


and the Indian Service budget is considered as a part of the In- 
terior Department budget. Membership on these subcommittees is 
continuous, and the various members come to have a remarkably exact 
knowledge of the needs of the departments whose budgets they are 
considering. The Interior subcommittee holds hearings, at which 
Commissioner Collier, the Indian Service finance officer, and the 
heads of the various divisions answer questions from committee 
members and explain Indian Service work and needs . They take 
with them to hearings plans of buildings, exhibits of school work, 
figures on crop and livestock production, maps and many other sup- 
porting documents. The subcommittee, after hearing from all In- 
terior Department units, frames the appropriation bill. It is 
now the spring of 1938. 

The entire Committee on Appropriations of the House then 
meets, considers the bill drafted by its subcommittee, and reports 
the bill to the House. Weeks of debate may ensue; the bill prob- 
ably is amended; finally it passes the House. 

Somewhat the same procedure is followed in the Senate;* 
the Senate subcommittee of the Interior Department holds hearings 
on the bill the House of Representatives has passed, considers 
amendments, probably amends the bill, and reports to the full com- 
mittee, which in turn considers the subcommittee amendments and 
reports the bill to the Senate with the proposed committee amend- 
ments. The Senate considers the bill passed by the House, passes 
on the Senate's proposed amendments and any new amendments offered 
during the discussion of the bill, and passes the bill. 

The amended bill is then referred to a conference commit- 
tee made up of members of both houses, which, after discussion, 
recommends final action to be taken. The House and Senate each 
considers the conference committee's recommendations and each fin- 
ally passes the bill. It is probably now Kay or June 1938. (Dur- 
ing some years when the legislative schedule was heavy, some ap- 
propriation bills have not passed until after the close of the 
fiscal year, and the departments involved have consequently run 
for a few days, or even weeks, on faith.) 

Still the money is not available. The bill is now an 
"enrolled" bill and is sent to the White House for executive ap- 
proval; from the White House the bill is sent (since it is possible 
that Congress may have been more generous in certain items than the 
original Budget estimates) to the Budget Bureau and to the Depart- 
ment concerned for review and recommendations. Upon receipt of 
these recommendations the President signs the bill, making it a 
law, or vetoes it and returns it to the Congress. Very few appro- 
priation bills, however, have ever been vetoed. 

* Under the Constitution, appropriation bills must be initiated 
by the House . 


There follow here several mechanical steps which the 
average government employee does not think of: the bill is sent 
to the Department of State to become an official part of the laws 
•f the United States; and the Department of State certifies copies 
of the law to the Treasury. The Treasury Department draws appro- 
priation warrants covering the various items in the Act which is 
now known as Public No. 497 (the current Interior Department Ap- 
propriation Act), from part of whose appropriations the Indian 
Service is being run during the current year. These warrants are 
countersigned by the Comptroller General of the United States in 
the General Accounting Office and are then returned to the Treas- 
ury; the Secretary of the Interior, the Departmental budget offi- 
cials, and the Indian Office officials are then notified. The In- 
dian Service, having received this notice, then prepares a pro- 
posed apportionment, sometimes with modifications, and notifies 
the Department of the Interior. In many cases reserves must be 
established to meet possible emergencies. (The Indian Office is 
required to submit, monthly, to the Bureau of the Budget, state- 
ments of obligations incurred against each appropriation in ordei 
that accurate information may be available as to the actual cash 
required to meet obligations as they accrue. 

The money is now available for allotments to field units- 
But the following steps must be taken before checks actually may 
be drawn against the appropriation account. 

Expenditure authorities are issued by the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs with the approval of the Assistant Secretary of 
the Interior, outlining the various purposes for which the appro- 
priations listed therein may be used. At approximately the same 
time, requisitions are prepared by the Indian Office on the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury for advances of lump sums from the several 
appropriations to the official account of the chief disbursing of- 
ficer with the Treasurer of the United States. Upon receipt by 
the Treasury of these requisitions (which have been routed through 
the General Accounting Office) they are charged against the appro- 
priation accounts maintained there, and accountable warrants issued, 
authorizing the deposit of the amounts of such requisitions in the 
official checking account of the chief disbursing officer. Upon 
receipt by the chief disbursing officer of advice of issue of such 
accountable warrants, he enters the amounts thereof on his books 
under the appropriation titles involved, using as a guide a copy 
of the requisition previously furnished him by the Indian Office. 
Thereafter, requests for transfers to the various regional disburs- 
ing officer by the Indian Office, such requests being based on the 
expenditure authorizations previously issued to the Indian field 
units. When these transfers have become effective, the field units 
are notified. 


Upon receipt of the expenditure authorities from the In- 
dian Office at Washington, the administrative officers in the field 
may enter into contracts for necessary supplies and services. 

All of the preceding steps, then, are what make possible 
the purchase of the pipe, the food and the diapers, and the payment 
of the Colville fire guard's salary. For these transactions, and 
for others similar to them, the field officers of the Service pre- 
pare advertisements for commodities they wish to. purchase, and 
after the articles sought have been delivered, vouchers are made 
out and transmitted to the proper regional disbursing officer of 
the Treasury Department for payment. 

It is this regional disbursing officer of the Treasury 
Department who actually signs the checks for local agency obliga- 
tions, in payment of vouchers submitted, and who mails them to the 
payees. In some areas payment can be made within a day or two; 
in isolated areas, where mail service is slow and the Treasury's 
regional disbursing officer is some distance from the reservation, 
payments cannot be made for several days. 

No'w the aftermath of payment, during which the correct- 
ness of the payments is checked. 

The regional disbursing officers send the paid vouchers 
to the chief disbursing officer at Washington. At the end of each 
month, the latter submits all paid vouchers for the particular 
month involved to the Indian Office for administrative examination. 
On completion of the examination, the chief disbursing officer and 
the Indian Service administrative officers are notified of any ex- 
ceptions taken to expenditures, and the original account is returned 
to the Division of Disbursements of the Treasury, where the vouch- 
ers of the various departments and agencies are assembled into one 
master account and are transmitted to the General Accounting Of- 
fice for final audit. Upon final audit, which may take place as 
much as a year after the voucher has been paid, the General Account- 
ing Office notifies the chief disbursing officer of any suspensions 
or disallowances of payments. He in turn notifies the certifying 
officer, whose duty it is then to prepare proper replies to the 
exceptions, or to make collections. These occasional disallowances 
must, in general, be met out of the pocket of the Indian Service 
administrator who authorized the erroneous payment- 

Thus the cycle of transactions which we have followed 
as typical examples of Indian Service expenditures - which began 
in the summer of 1937 - will be entirely completed some time in 
1939 or 1940. 



Indian women are being accorded important places in the 
councils of their people. Some of the women who have been chosen 
for tribal council posts are mentioned below. This list does not 
pretend to be a complete one • 

Mrs. Nellie Scott, First 

Woman Member Of An 

Arapaho Council. 

Mrs. Nellie Scott is the 
first woman ever elected to their trib- 
al council by the Arapahos of the Wind 
River Agency in Wyoming. She was e- 
lected chairwoman of the council in 
1936 and has been a delegate for the 
tribe in Washington. Mrs. Scott is 
the daughter of Julia Felter, full- 
blood, who was picked up as an infant 
on a battlefield near Evanston, Wyo- 
ming, by John Felter, and brought up 
by him and his wife as their own 

Mrs. Alice Hooper, Shoshone, 
is a member of the council of the 
Reese River Indians, under the juris- 
diction of the Carson Agency in Nevada. 

The Reese River Indians' land is not recognized as a 
renervation; hence, this group has not yet been able to seek recog- 
Reorganization Act . Be- 
lieving that organiza- 
tion for common purposes 
is good business, how- 
ever, they have already 
set up a constitution 
and as soon as the for- 
mality of declaring their 
lands, bought recently 
with Indian Reorganiza- 
tion Act funds, to be a 
reservation, they plan 
to organize as the Yomba 
Shoshone Tribe of the 
Yomba Reservation. 

Shoshone Tribal Council - Reese River 

(Carson Agency, Nevada), With F a rm 
Agent Hannifan. Mrs. Hooper At Left. 


Mrs. Ida N. Wilson 

Mrs. Irene Meade 

Mrs. Ida N. Wilson is the only woman who has ever served 
on the Papago Tribal Council (Sells Agency, Arizona)- She was 
elected secretary under the constitution approved January 6, 1937. 

Mrs. Irene Meade is another Indian woman who has repre- 
sented her people. She served on the Shoshone Tribal Council at 
Wind River, Wyoming, as its first woman member from 1935 to 1937, 
and came to Washington as a delegate. She is a quarter -blood Sho- 
shone, and granddaughter of Miaditzah, well-known Shoshone woman. 
Mrs. Meade has been a school-teacher for fourteen years and is the 
mother of three children. 

Mrs. Mae Aubrey Williamson, 
Blackfeet, of Montana, is another wo- 
man whose prominence in her tribe has 
brought her recognition on the tribal 

Mrs. Williamson has been a 
delegate of her tribe in Washington, 
and, in addition to being the first 
woman council member for the Black- 
feet, is president of the Business 
and Professional Woman's Club of the 
reservation. She is particularly 
interested in education matters. 

Included among other women 
who have had council posts are Lucy 
H. Kennedy, Secretary of the first 
Winnebago (Nebraska) Tribal Council 
elected under their constitution and 
by-laws, and Mrs. Edith Post Thayer, 

Mrs. Mae Aubrey Williamson 


also of Winnebago Agency, member of the first Ponca board of gov- 
ernors elected under this group's Indian Reorganization Act consti- 

The First Winnebago Council 
Chosen Under The I.R.A. 
(Lucy H. Kennedy In 
Front Row At Left) 

The First Ponca Board Of Govern- 
ors Chosen Under The I.R.A. 
(Mrs. Edith Post Thayer 
In Front Row At Right) 


(From notes supplied by Dr. Dean J. Darius, 
Walker River Hospital, Carson Agency, Nevada.) 

The occurrence of a case of trichinosis at Walker River, 
Nevada, last summer brings out the importance of taking precautions 
against this disease, especially in those Indian communities where 
most families raise hogs and where hog meat plays a large part in 
the diet. 

Trichinosis is a worm infestation and its acute form can 
be very severe, causing death in many cases. In its quiescent 
stage, in which the worms are encapsulated, or walled up, in the 
muscles of the body, the disease can go entirely unnoticed. The 
relatives of the patient at Walker River, who also ate the same hog 
meat, but less of it, noticed no symptoms, although subsequent 
physical examinations at the hospital showed the presence of in- 
festation. It is probable that a large number of people in rural 
areas of the United States are infected. 

Symptoms of the disease are diarrhea and muscular pain 

The disease is acquired only by eating infected hog meat 
Infected meat can be rendered harmless by thorough cooking - until 
the fresh pork is white in color throughout, even in the center 
Smoked and pickled pork may be safe, but is not necessarily so, 
and such meat should also be cooked before being eaten. 



By Robert J. Trier, Associate Highway Engineer 

The Pokegama Bridge 

The Pokegama Bridge, planned and built by Indians, and 
located in an area rich in Indian history, is one of thousands 
of examples of Indian progress and change . 

This bridge on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, in the 
northern Wisconsin lake region, is on the road between Pokegama 
Lake and Flambeau Lake. Within sight of the bridge's location a 
famous canoe battle between Chippewas and Sioux took place, which 
still lives in Chippewa hi s tory . Over this trail came the early 
Jesuit missionaries. Allouez, Raddison, Groseiller, Marquette, 
and other explorers traversed this same ground. 

John Drumbeater, former chief of the Pokegama Band of 
Chippewas, knew this area when it was practically an untouched 
wilderness. It was John Drumbeater 's great-grandson, Ted Stuck- 
lager, who drew every line of the plans for the Pokegama Bridge. 
This boy never saw the completed bridge he had planned: he went 
to the hospital before it was finished and died there. One of 
the last things he said to me when I visited him wast "I hope I 
don't miss my chance to do the plans for the Bad River Bridge*." 

•This was to be a big job - a two-hundred-foot span, which has 
since been completed. 


•h e 


o 2 

J3 CT> 

ft ■" 

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0) en 

U |H 



A collection of Hopi designs made by J. Preston Myers a 
few years ago shows that creative design is by no means dead or 
even dormant among the Hopi. The collection embraces both old 
and new designs, and the vitality of the new designs is evidence 
of the vigor of present-day Hopi art. 

Mr . Myers sought to perpetuate the best of the modern de- 
signs by amassing a permanent collection, and to retrieve the an- 
cient designs that were being lost to the people of Oraibi village. 
The work was begun by young Hopi students under Mr. Myers 1 direc- 
tion in 1924; soon, however, it became a village undertaking, for 
adult Indians began voluntarily bringing rare designs to the school. 
The collection has now become a permanent possession of the commu- 
nity in that the designs are being used and adapted by children and 
adults in crafts Work. A number of the designs are reproduced on 
the opposite page. In Mr. Myers' original mimeographed booklet, 
the various stipplings and markings were keyed to a color chart, 
thus preserving not only the lines but the brilliant color as well 
of this heritage of beautiful design. 

Mr. Myers is now Education Field Agent at the Hoopa Val- 
ley Agency, Eureka, California, but was formerly in the same po- 
sition at the Potawatomi Agency in Kansas, after having taught for 
some time at the Oraibi Day School under the Hopi Jurisdiction in 

Modern Leaf Border Created By Nuvamsa 


iSSIAS SlUiij Cfini£Tj 




Most Indians and 
Indian Service workers 
have by now heard some- 
thing of the new drug sul- 
fanilamide in the treatment of trachoma, the persistent eye disease 
with which one out of every five or six Indians is infected. It was 
an Indian Service doctor, Dr. Fred Loe of Rosebud, South Dakota, who 
first thought of sulfanilamide's possibilities in treating trachoma 
and experimented in its use. It has been tried cautiously in other 
Indian Service areas and checked also by trachoma specialists out- 
side the Service. 

In sulfanilamide, it seems probable that a powerful and 
rapidly effective weapon has at last been found in fighting this 
long-lived disease. But it is a weapon whose potentialities are 
partly unknown, and it is consequently one which can do harm if ad- 
ministered without the utmost care. The Indian Service wants to 
put sulfanilamide into effective, and at the same time, cautious 

At a recent meeting in Washington, attended by a number 
of Indian Service health personnel and by the Trachoma Advisory Com- 
mittee made up of dollar-a-year specialists outside of the Service*, 
the plan of campaign was drawn. 

Dr. Fred Loe and Dr. Polk fiichards, who is in charge of 
the Service's trachoma work, are working out, after consultation 
with Dr. Phillips Thygeson of Columbia University, distinguished 
trachoma specialist, a program at the Tongue River Boarding School 
at Busby, Montana, and at the Salem School in Chemawa, Oregon, which 
will combine sulfanilamide treatment of trachomatous pupils with re- 
search on the use of the drug. These two areas were selected be- 
cause of the large number of children infected - approximately three 
hundred out of four hundred at Chemawa and eighty-five in one hundred 
and forty, at Busby. The children's physical reaction to the drug 
will be watched with utmost care, and daily blood tests will be ad- 

Similarly, a special trachoma summer school is planned 
for Fort Defiance, on the Navajo, at which trachomatous children 

* Dr. Harry S. Gradle, Dr. Lawrence T. Post, Dr. W. L. Benedict, 
and Dr . Loui s S . G-reene . 


will be kept at boarding school - subject, of course, to their par- 
ents' consent - so as to achieve a longer period of continuous 

This work is something which the general medical world 
will watch with the deepest interest, since in this most recent dis- 
covery, as in many other steps in the gradual conquest of trachoma, 
the Indian Service physicians have been pioneers. 

Sulfanilamide's effectiveness is not an unknown quantity; 
it has been demonstrated on a small scale at various Indian Service 
jurisdictions, reported to the American Medical Association, and 
checked by clinical work outside the Service. But before wholesale 
dosage of the drug is begun, it is obviously only wise that further 
checking in the dosage needed, the period of treatment required, 
and that the corollary effects upon patients be further considered, 
under circumstances which give the patients every safeguard. With 
this knowledge as security, the Indian Service can proceed to a more 
widespread use of sulfanilamide in a campaign to wipe out this di- 
sease which it has fought for more than twenty years. 

The following caution cannot be too urgently emphasized: 
Sulfanilamide, recklessly administered, can be extremely dangerous', 
even to life. It should never be resorted to without close medical 


By Stanford L. Oksness, Senior Camp Assistant 

At the Red Lake Agency in Minnesota, the problem of main- 
taining the enrollee program after the discontinuation of the camp 
at Red Lake and the consequent dispersal of the men after working 
hours to their homes was met by instituting a voluntary overtime 
procedure. The Red Lake CCC-ID men agreed to work enough extra 
time to free Friday afternoon of each week for keeping up the wel- 
fare and education work. Instruction has included health educa- 
tion, agricultural training by members of the extension staff, 
training in forestry, map work, drafting, surveying, and general 
mechanics. The interest in athletics has continued, and the Red 
Lake baseball team made a fine record. Wild life conservation has 
also continued as a subject of wide interest, and one vitally con- 
nected with Red Lake conditions. A subsistence garden was main- 
tained by the enrollees. 



After grading 
is done and the 
foundation has been 
poured, the slab 
work goes fast. 

After the 
chute slab was com- 
plete, the grading 
of the lower apron 
was finished and 
the trench for the 
lower cut-off wall 
was dug. 

TJ i IKg^- ' 






Finishing off 
a section of the 
apron at Stoneman 
Dam en the Standing 
Rock Reservation in 
North Dakota. 



Until recently, it would have been possible for a twenty- 
three or twenty-four-year-old girl who had never lived anywhere 
except in a modern apartment building where she turned on the heat , 
pushed a button for light, and telephoned to the store for grocer- 
ies, and who had taught only white city children an established 
curriculum, to pass brilliantly a Civil Service examination for an 
Indian Service teaching job. Subsequently she might find herself 
living in a cottage sixty miles from the nearest town and forty 
miles from medical help, via dirt roads; stoking a wood stove for 
heatj cleaning oil lamps; and teaching a varied group of Indian 
children who understood little English and little of white ways, 
and whose main concern, outside of school hours, was helping their 
parents to get enough to eat from poor land. 

Now a new Civil Service examination for the position of 
teacher in Indian community and boarding schools has recently been 
announced and applications are being rated at the Civil Service Com- 
mission. Through these examinations the Indian Service is seeing 
to it that its teachers shall be not only well-qualified from the 
educational point of view, but also solidly grounded in rural prob- 
lems, sympathetic with the people whom they will serve, and aware 
of the challenging difficulties of Indian Service life. 

This is not to say that some urban men and women have not, 
in the past, adapted themselves to changed conditions, energetically 
acquired the knowledge and assurance needed to lead Indian commun- 
ities, and proved themselves fine teachers. Many of them have done 
just this; but many others have fallen by the wayside, at a consid- 
erable cost and inconvenience to the Indian Service and at a person- 
al cost of disappointment and lost time to the individuals themselves 
to say nothing of the loss sustained by their Indian pupils. 

This new examination is not based upon written performance, 
but upon education, and upon the extent and quality of the appli- 
cants 1 experience and fitness for the job at hand- Applicants who 
pass the other phases of the examination are notified, and an oral 
examination is then provided to further insure adaptability to In- 
dian Service conditions. 

In the announcement of the examination, the objectives of 
the Indian Service educational system are clearly stated, the need 
for development of community leadership on the part of the teacher 
pointed out, and the demands of life far from urban conveniences 


emphasized. "Most of these schools are located in isolated rural 
areas with meager resources where the land has been seriously de- 
pleted by overgrazing, recurring droughts, and improper farm prac- 
tices. They are often at some distance from the nearest white 
community, and in some sections where the Indians themselves do 
not live in villages, the schools are somewhat remote from human 
habitation. In the northern reservations and in Alaska, some 
schools are cut off for months at a time from travel communication. 
Ability, therefore, to adjust to association with a limited number 
of people in such isolated situations is essential to success in 
one of these positions," says the announcement. 

The requirements made of applicants include college 
training (or for certain posts, comparable music or art training) 
and specialization in a given field, such as agriculture, rural 
merchandising, and adult education; plus two years of successful 
full-time teaching experience. Applicants must be under forty and 
in good health. 

The Indian Service regards its education job not merely 
as teaching what is in books, but as helping young Indian people 
to understand their resources and the most modern methods of de- 
veloping them. In this type of work, it is felt, it is the teach- 
er with rural background who can be the most effective. 


"In going over the various things I have seen on this 
recent trip, I am impressed with a number of things I did not have 
space to mention in this column. I want to speak of one thing, 
even at this late date. 

"In Lawrence, Kansas, there is an Indian school called 
Haskell Institute, which teaches trades as well as academic sub- 
jects. I was enormously interested in some of the things they 
were developing and with the very practical training they were 
giving in their shops. This group of young boys and girls were 
alert and intelligent looking and were evidently keeping up the 
traditions of their race for physical fitness and prowess. Some 
of them wore their native costumes and they were beautiful to 
look at. I still remember one young man's feather headdress which 
was blowing in the wind. A girl presented me with a lovely bead- 
work headband. I wish I could have spent more time with the young- 
sters and had an opportunity to talk with them." (Reprinted from 
the Kansas City Star , November 1.) 


?y T. P. Hinckley, Former Teacher at Gambell, Alaska 

Towing In A Whale 

The Eskimos of Gambell 
and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Is- 
land are without doubt among the 
best equipped and most progres- 
sive of Alaska. It is my honest 
belief that at least part of the 
credit for the progress of these 
people can be laid to sympathetic 
Indian Service supervision plus 
the fact that they have always 
lived on a reservation. These fac- 
tors, and the natural isolation of 
the group have kept them away from the less desirable whites and from 
liquor - the two most detrimental elements in the lives of both Es- 
kimos and Indians of Alaska- 

These people have, through their own past experiences and. 
through the influence exerted by their teachers and missionaries, 
become thoroughly convinced of the tragic consequences of over-in- 
dulgence in liquor. So strong is their feeling that they will have 
nothing to do with it. This incident is an illustration: 

Last summer, while we were on duty in Gambell, a ship an- 
chored about one-half mile off shore. The Eskimos, as is their cus- 
tom, immediately launched two of their boats and went out to trade. 
The ship owners tried to trade them liquor for their products. The 
Eskimos refused and returned to shore, there to stay until the ship's 
departure. This incident illustrates, I think, the fact that Eski- 
mos have as much judgment as anyone provided that the more temperate 
elements have an even chance 
with them. 

The people of 
Gambell and Savoonga have 
good homes, excellent boats, 
good motors for their boats 
and the best of hunting 
equipment . These people 
have bought all these 
things for themselves with 
the returns from their fox 
trapping and ivory carving. 

A Walrus Skin 


Very little has ever been 
spent on them in the way 
of relief by the Government . 
They even have their own 
community fund with which 
they take care of the ex- 
penses of their village 
such as radio equipment, 
village light plant, upkeep 
on their machine shop and 
the care of the sick and 
old people. 

Heturning Trom The Hunt 

Just a little in- 
cident to show that these people of Gambell are progressive. This 
village has never had a schoolhouse. School has been held, off and 
on, for forty years or more in the" Presbyterian Mission Building. 
In past yearns the children had to wear their parkas in school to 
keep warm; they came just the same because they wanted to get an 
education. These past two years the Eskimo men have donated their 
time and repaired the walls of the old mission building and the In- 
dian Office sent in two excellent oil-burning heaters which have 
made it possible to keep warm during the cold winter months. The 
point I wish to bring out is this: these Eskimos came to me and 
told me that they wanted a schoolhouse so much that they themselves 
would buy the lumber and build one from the store funds if I thought 
it would be all right. I told them that I did not think the store 
could afford it and that I hoped the Indian Office would send in a 
schoolhouse for them this year. (So far as I know, Gambell still 
does not have a schoolhouse.) 

I have written only a few of the outstanding facts about 
these remarkable people, whose abilities and colorful ways deserve 
real study. To me they are an example of what wise planning and the 
right kind of reservation life can do. I feel certain that if the 
other Indians and Eskimos of Alaska could have had circumstances as 
favorable as these Eskimos of St. Lawrence Island and the Indians of 
Metlakatla on Annette Island, they, too, could keep the fine quali- 
ties of their old life while at the same time they use the white man's 
tools for better and more secure, living. 

By Preston Keesama, Hopi 



By Reginald K. Laubin 

All of us associate giving with the Christmas season. 
The original teacher of Christianity made His whole life one of 
giving to others and our custom of giving at this season, when we 
celebrate His birthday, is merely a symbol of what He expressed 

We have called the Indians savages and pagans and since 
our earliest contact with them have tried to wean them from their 
native ways- And yet, in many ways they were better Christians, 
more kindly, more generous and less narrow-minded, than some of 
their white teachers. We could do well to learn something of their 
generosity, for instance, which was expressed not just once during 
the year, but all the time. 

To many Indian tribes generosity and bravery were con- 
sidered nearly the same. It was impossible to an Indian's mind 
to be brave without being generous. There was a constant exchange 
of presents going on. It is customary with Indians, as with oth- 
er peoples, to return a gift with a gift, but the intrinsic val- 
ues of the gifts themselves are often unimportant. The spirit in 
which they are given is the important thing. 

If a child were born to an Indian family, that family 
gave away presents to celebrate the event. They also received 
presents from others in congratulation. If a man changed his name, 
he gave away presents in honor of that occasion. In the Grass 
Dance of the Sioux, if a man drops an article, such as a feather 
from his costume, he does not pick it up, but one, two, or more 
men rush for it, strike it (symbol of "counting coup"), and each 
gives away a gift to some old person, after which the article is 
returned to its owner. And they strive for this privilege of "giv- 
ing away I" In the Brave Heart Dance of the Cheyenne the man who 
dances is not given a present, as we would expect, but he "gives 
away" , to show how brave he is '. 

While visiting at Pine Ridge a few years ago, I saw 
many Indians give away presents, ranging from five pounds of sugar 
which is a great luxury to them, to a horse. These gifts were 
presented to a family which had just lost a little boy. The giv- 
ing was to show sympathy for the family's sorrow and to help them 
start life afresh. The Indian had a "give-away" ceremony to ex- 
press gratitude, to honor heroes, for giving names, for mourning, 
for charity and for public benefits. 

Some years ago an old man at Standing Rock once drew 
some money from his account, cashed it in one-dollar bills, tied 
them on a stick and held a "give-away" dance on the Fourth of 


July. As he danced, he called out the names of needy persons, 
who entered the dance in turn and each pulled a bill off the stick. 
When an Indian Service employee heard this he was deeply upset. 
"Gone back to savagery," he said. From that time on he would not 
allow the old man any money from his account. The old man and 
his wife lived alone, and had it not been for generous friends, 
willing to share the little they had, these old people would have 
suffered, with money of their own in trust for them, but not avail- 
able to them. Why was it more "savage" to tie the bills on a 
stick than to put them into envelopes and send them to the needy 
ones through the mail, according to " civilised" custom? The fact 
that the old man did. anything in an Indian way, and of all things 
gave away something for nothing, classed him as a savage in the 
eyes of the employee, who was no doubt dutifully carrying out the 
wishes of the old Indian Bureau employing him. 

Fortunately for the Indians and for all of us, the gov- 
ernment now recognizes that Indians have many worth-while charac- 
teristics of their own, deserving recognition and encouragement in 
their development. 

Because of his generosity the Indian has been called im- 
provident . But with Indians all shared alike. There were no rich 
and no poor. With many tribes, as with the Zuni , the "poor" per- 
son was one with little or no spiritual knowledge, and a rich man 
is one blessed with spiritual wisdom. As for material possessions, 
all feasted or all hungered. No one held on to food or other ne- 
cessities when others were in need, but everything was distributed 
willingly and gladly. We would destroy this quality of superior 
civilization. But this quality of giving, this Christmas spirit, 
may be one of the things to save not only the Indian race, but our 
own too. The ideal of the Indian was giving, not getting. 

Today the Indians also celebrate our Christmas, but the 
outstanding feature is that they celebrate it in a group and not 
in individual family parties as we do. First they all go to church; 
then come the festivities. Someone takes the part of Santa Claus 
and presents are distributed to all the children and to many of the 
adults; then a grand feast is spread for everyone. 

Usually when one goes to an Indian feast, whether at 
Christmas or any other time, he takes his own dishes along - per- 
haps an evidence of consideration for the dish washers. Visitors 
and children are served first, then old people and finally the mid- 
dle-aged adults. 

Is it too much to hope that, like the Indians of old, we - 
modern Indians and whites alike - could carry this feeling of neigh- 
borly responsibility and generosity throughout the year instead of 
concentrating it in an annual burst at Christmas-time? 



Eleven-Foot Rock Cut, Drilled And Blasted By Indian Labor 


Indian-Built Bridge -Culvert 



Superintendents ' Recommendations On Transfers Requested 

The transfer of employees between jurisdictions now is, 
and must remain, an important element in the best use of Indian 
Service personnel- 

Transfers are wisely made; (a) to meet the need in a 
jurisdiction for talent or temperament of a given sort, (b) to 
find for employed talent an opportunity and a use better suited to 
the peculiarities of the individual and (c) as a means of promo- 

Other factors, which may be called neutral ones, some- 
times indicate a transfer. These axe such factors as health, the 
requirements of the employee's family, etc. 

It is also not to be forgotten that the transfer process 
often has been used as simply the easiest way - the most kind- 
hearted with reference to the employee, and the most thought-spar- 
ing with reference to the Indian Office. Many times, it must be 
admitted, employees have been transferred when a proper facing of 
the facts would have indicated dismissal or retirement. 

For some time, we at Washington have given thought to the 
ways through which superintendents and supervisory officials in the 
field could be enabled more effectively to help in deciding upon 
the advisability of transfers. 

We hesitate to introduce into the personnel process a 
new factor which might occasion added paper work and delay. Never- 
theless, we are going to try the experiment of obtaining in the 
case of transfers, the information and recommendation (a) of the 
superintendent or supervisory official from whose jurisdiction the 
transferee is to be moved and (b) of the superintendent or super- 
vising official to whose jurisdiction the transferee may be used. 

It should be clearly understood that the information and 
advice of the field personnel cannot have final weight. This, be- 
cause in most cases the complete facts of record and of exigency 
cannot be known to the field personnel. Moreover, the responsibil- 
ity rests finally upon the Department. 

At the same time, it shall be our policy to be guided so 
far as is practicable by the judgment of the superintendents and 


supervisory officials. Fundamentally, what should be recognized 
is that to be transferred without actively seeking the transfer 
is not a stigma. 

Every experienced field officer knows cases where un- 
success in one jurisdiction has been followed by success in anoth- 
er. The reasons are many, but the fundamental one is simply this: 
that Indian administration is not a uniform pattern. The stresses 
and strains are different in different jurisdictions. The tempo 
varies. The degree of nervous tension imposed by the challenge of 
the job varies greatly from one jurisdiction to another. In one 
jurisdiction a prime requisite may be initiative, in another it 
may be dependable attention to detail. The management methods of 
superintendents vary, because administration is an art as much as 
it is a science. 

It is desirable that when a superintendent recommends a 
transfer out from his jurisdiction, he shall take into considera- 
tion the efficiency records, but shall supplement them with an ob- 
jective statement of the reasons why he advises the transfer. If 
these reasons are due to shortcomings of the employee, he should 
not withhold the facts. And if he believes the employee is incor- 
rigibly deficient, it usually is this fact which he should report 
to us here, in place of recommending a transfer. 

Prom the end of the superintendent to whose jurisdiction 
the transfer is proposed to be made, it is important that he shall 
be assured that the transfer is not merely an easiest way; that a 
real purpose is being served by the transfer, and not the purpose 
of relieving another jurisdiction of human timber worthless any- 

The experience of tne prior superintendent with an em- 
ployee should be invaluable in guiding the subsequent superintend- 
ent in the wise placement of the transferred employee to the end 
that his strengths and not his weaknesses shall come "out on top." 

The policy of obtaining advice from both ends of the 
transfer operation is being undertaken experimentally. It maj- 
oring conflicts and delays too great. It may not produce results 
worth the trouble. If the superintendents concerned in a transfer 
should correspond directly with one another, time would be saved. 
The earnest cooperation of superintendents and advisory personnel 
is counted upon. 

At Commissioner 



With the retirement on December 31 , at the age of 70, of 
David Buddru8, the Indian Service loses a figure known to many em- 
ployees personally, and by name to nearly every Service member. 

Mr. Ruddrus, who was born and educated in Germany, has 
spent his entire government service in the Indian Office, and at 
one spot - Muskogee, Oklahoma. He entered the Service in 1906 as 
a clerk at the Union Agency in Muskogee where he became chief of 
its Division of Accounts. He subsequently became cashier and spe- 
cial disbursing agent for the Five Civilized Tribes Agency, where he 
has handled individual Indian money accounts totaling well over 
$40,000,000 annually. He is better known throughout the Service, 
however, as the officer through whom salaries and expenses of em- 
ployees in the Indian Service at large are paid. Mr. Buddrus' 
knowledge of old Indian Service records and of Service regulations 
and procedure is unique. 

An employee with an even longer Indian Service record is 
Superintendent John H. Crickenberger of the Truxton Canon Agency 
in Arizona, who was granted retirement On November 30, at the age 
of 65. Mr. Crickenberger entered the Service in 1902 at Yakima. 
He has served at Rosebud, South Dakota; Tohachi, New Mexico, and 
at the Rainy Mountain School in Oklahoma, where he was principal; 
he has been chief clerk at Pima, Arizona; at the San Juan School 
at Shiprock, New Mexico; at Uintah and Ouray, Utah; at Fort Hall, 
Idaho; and since 1927, at Truxton Canon, where, as a tribute to 
his many years of faithful service in other capacities, he was re- 
cently made superintendent. 


The bronze doors of the new Library of Congress Annex in 
Washington, D. C., show, in bas-relief, the figures of real and 
legendary figures who have brought the art of letters to mankind. 
The figures are: Toth, the Egyptian amanuensis of the gods; Brahma, 
Hindu supreme god of the Indian Trinity; Ts'ang Chieh, legendary 
Chinese inventor of writing; the Phoenician Cadmus; Nabu, Assyrian 
god of writing and wisdom; Tahmurath, Persian deity of letters; 
Hermes, whom the Greeks believed invented the alphabet: Itaamna^ 
chief of the Maya pantheon; Odin, the Scandinavian god of wisdom; 
Gjoetzalcoatl, who legend says, gave the Aztecs their culture; and 
Ogma, signalized in Irish mythology as the inventor of writing. 
Last is Sequoyah, Indian inventor of the Cherokee Syllabary. 



H- W. Shipe, who for years ha8 been connected with ex- 
tension work, first as chief of the Division of Industries, and in 
later years as Assistant to the Director of Extension and Industry, 
has been appointed as Special Assistant to the Director of Irriga- 

Mr. Ralph H. Bristol, who has been serving as Supervisor 
of Extension Work in the northwestern states area, with headquarter s 
in Salt Lake City, Utah, has been promoted to the position of As- 
sistant Director of Extension and Industry, with headquarters at 

Dr. Joseph C McCaskill, Assistant Director of Education, 
has been temporarily assigned to the Commissioner's Office to aid 
in various special projects- Mr. P. W. Danielson, Superintendent 
of Education for the Five Civilized Tribes Agency, is being detailed 
to Washington to replace Dr. McCaskill; Mr. Russell Kelley of 
Haskell Institute will replace Mr. Danielson; and Mr. Warren G. 
Spaulding, head of vocational work at Haskell, will be in charge 
of Haskell for the time being. 

It is planned to promote Frederick W. Sunderwirth, who 
has been for many years at the Muskogee Office, to the place left 
vacant by Mr. Buddrus 1 retirement (see page 34). 


WPA projects in Indian communities have meant not only a 
source of income but a chance to build local Indian leadership and 
to do a number of worth-while jobs. The Indian Service has stressed 
the need for coordination of such projects not only with WPA plans, 
but with general reservation and community needs. 

Reports on this program show encouraging results, not 
only in work done, but in training and in the development of morale. 

For example, Superintendent H. E. Bruce of the Potawatomi 
Agency in Kansas writes: "We have had Indian leaders assigned by 
WPA for various educational, recreational, gardening, canning, 
museum, office records, sewing and other projects. These projects 
have been beneficial to our Indian groups in a variety of ways, in 
addition to providing sources of income for Indians who otherwise 
would have been unemployed." 



By D. B. Sanford, Road Engineer 

economy of speech 
is illustrated by 
this incident in- 
volving Michel 
Delaware, a full- 
blood working here 
as tractor opera- 
tor at- Flathead 
In the Road Divi- 

ly it became nec- 
essary to secure 
some gravel from 
a pit some dis- 
ance away • The 
pit had been used before but the trap needed repair. There was a 
tumblebug at the site so Mike was called in and asked if he could 
take his 35 tractor, load it on a truck, hire some help and be 
ready to load trucks by the next morning. Mike's conversation in 
this matter was only one word: M Yes." 

With some misgivings the road engineer watched Mike load 
the tractor, stock up with gas and oil, get in and drive off. The 
truck drivers were instructed to be at the pit early the next morn- 
ing and at eight-thirty the gravel began coming on the job. The 
engineer was not able to visit the pit until the following day. The 
picture above 9hows Mike on the tractor and the men he had hired. 
He did the job and kept the trucks moving as he promised when he 
said, "Yes." 


The picturesque scene on the cover is an example of over- 
grazing as contributing to the wind and water erosion existing on 
most of the Navajo Reservation. 



By Dr. Joseph D. Aronson, Special Expert in Tuberculosis 

life had established our field laboratory in one of the 
schoolrooms. Our door remained open. Soon eager faces appeared 
in the doorway. Our invitation for them to come in was accepted 
with hesitation by some and with alacrity by others. A look about 
the room, whispered conversation in Pima, and then a barrage of 
questions. "What did we do with that?" - pointing to an analytic- 
al balance. We demonstrated. Eyes grew bigger and brighter, and 
faces expressed surprise when the weight of a hair was demonstrated; 
greater amazement when it was shown that a pencil mark had weight. 
The children were fascinated when glass tubing was melted and drawn 
into hair-like thinness and were delighted when told that they 
might keep it- 

The children had heard much about germs, but not having 
actually seen any, their conception as to what a germ really looked 
like was naturally vague . We obtained some pus from a boil and 
some sputum from a tubercular patient, stained these specimens for 
the children and then let them examine the prepared slides under 
the microscope. What impressed them most was the minute size of 
these germs, even after they were enlarged about two thousand times- 
We spoke of the manner of spreading bacteria. These bacteria re- 
sembled seeds, we explained, and the human body resembled a field 
In which these bacteria might multiply rapidly under favorable con- 

To demonstrate the growth of bacteria as well as one 
method of control, we asked the children to place a glass rod in 
their mouths and smear the rods upon plates of culture media. These 
rods were then washed with soap and water and again smeared upon 
plates of culture media- After incubating these plates for two 
days, they were again shown to the children. They learned what a 
colony of bacteria looked like on the first plate, and how washing 
the rod with soap and water destroyed them, since there were no 
bacterial colonies in evidence on the second set of plates. 

Some of the children expressed curiosity as to what blood 
cells looked like under the microscope. It was a simple matter to 
take a drop of blood and show them the cells found in blood. Since 
we were also interested in determining the different types, we dem- 
onstrated how certain sera clumped red blood cells and explained 


the importance of knowing to what blood type they each belonged in 
case it might ever become necessary to give or receive a blood 

The circulation of blood in the web of the frog's foot 
was shown through the microscope. It was with difficulty that 
some of them were persuaded to leave the microscope, so that oth- 
ers might see the blood flowing in the fine blood vessels. 

We thought that the parents too, might have some inter- 
est in the whys and wherefores of disease, so we packed our mi- 
croscope and slides, the x-ray films and viewing box, and with 
some hesitation, a specimen of human lungs which came from a per- 
son who had died from tuberculosis- We took our equipment to a 
community meeting. There we found a responsive audience of all 
ages. A short talk on the cause and spread of tuberculosis was 
given. The slides of stained tubercle bacilli were shown. We 
stressed how small and now numerous were the causes of this di- 
sease, and how it was transmitted by careless spitting and by 
crowded living conditions. An x-ray film of a patient with tuber- 
culosis was set up to show what the magic eye of the x-ray re- 
vealed. In order tfc point out the damage which the rapid growth 
of tubercle bacilli in the lungs could do, the specimen of the hu- 
man lung with large cavities still filled with clotted blood and 
secretions was displayed. 

At the end of the lecture, the audience was asked to ex- 
amine these displays more closely and to ask questions. They did 
this with interest, intelligence and eagerness. They squinted 
through the microscope, they counted ribs and studied the heart on 
the x-ray film. They handled the lung, and wanted to know more and 
more about it. 

We had often been told that Indians had no interest in 
science, but in these simple demonstrations everyone - children 
and adults - showed intelligent interest and curiosity. 

Note : Since this article was first written, the writer 
has revisited these reservations where open-door laboratories and 
demonstrations at community meetings were first started. He has 
been impressed with the number of individuals who have come to him 
requesting permission to use the microscope or to find out more 
about science. The Indian child is just as curious as his white 
brother to find out "what makes the wheels go 'round" and just as 
able to understand the answers. 



By Eugene Zemans, Social Worker, 

Consolidated Chippewa Agency, Minnesota 

Juanita LaDuc , Chippewa, 
again represented Mahnomen 4-H Clubs 
for sewing work at the Minnesota 
State Fair. Because of the suitabil- 
ity, good taste, and professional 
finish of the clothing she made, she 
was named "County Style Queen" for 
the second time at the Fair. 

Twenty- year-old Juanita 
LaDuc was born on the White Earth 
Reservation near Fosston. She is at 
present National Youth Administration 
secretary to a member of the Indian 
Service staff on the White Earth Res- 

Juanita LeDuc 

Maxine LaDuc, eighteen, 
sister of Juanita, also went again 
to the Minnesota State Fair as 4-H 
Club county health champion. 


Vicente Mirabal, instructor at the Santa Fe Indian School, 
from Taos, New Mexico, was the winner of an Indian poster prize con- 
test for the coming Golden Gate International Exposition to be held 
in San Francisco. The second prize was won by Narcisco Abeyta, Nav- 
ajo; the third by Otis Polelonema, Hopi ; and the fourth by Andrew 
Standing Soldier, Sioux. The first and second prize-winning paint- 
ings ere to be reproduced for the Indian Court at the Exposition. 


Vicente Mirabal 's painting depicted the Turtle Dance at 




(Written "by Harold L. Turner, Consolidated Ute Agency, 
and Reprinted from the "Durango News", Durango, Colorado) 

For the past two years the Ute Mountain Tribe or band of 
Utes, known officially as the Weminuche Band, has been under the 
influence of a progressive chief. Jack House, the present chief, 
takes a real interest in the advancement of his people and tries 
to absorb new ideas that might make for progress among his fellow 
tribesmen. For several months he worked on a CCC project himself 
and on several occasions he accompanied the CCC foreman on field 
trips to visit the different projects. He is president of the Ute 
Mountain Cattlemen's Association and takes a very active part in 
the deliberations of that group. The chief has visited other res- 
ervations to learn what is being done by Indians in other parts of 
the Southwest. Last spring he and three other Ute Indians attend- 
ed an Indian forest fire training school at the Fort Apache Indian 
Agency in Arizona. 

The chief and his four councilmen have taken trips in a 
body out on the reservation to better acquaint themselves with the 
work of the range and extension workers and to help further the 
work being sponsored by the government to better the Indian live- 
stock industry. On these trips certain grazing practices are dis- 
cussed and observed. Better ways of taking care of stock are dem- 
onstrated. The Indian grazing division is attempting to secure 
the wholehearted support of the Indians in planned grazing for the 
optimum use of the range, which also considers the very important 
problems of range conservation. 

The Indian grazing division in cooperating with the In- 
dian CCC Division has planted five plots for reseeding purposes, 
so that nature may be helped in providing more and better grazing 
for Ute sheep and cattle. Crested wheat grass and smooth brome 
grass have been planted on these plots. The CCC has fenced sever- 
al small areas at different places on the reservation to serve as 
demonstration plots to show the Indians and other interested per- 
sons how the grass can "rehabilitate" itself in places where pre- 
viously there has been overgrazing. The plots have clearly demon- 
strated that the grass will grow thicker and taller where grazing 
is restricted. While much of this work is altogether new to this 
reservation and some of it is still in the experimental stages, 
it is expected that much good will result from planned range work. 


Most of the work of the CCC Division in the past 4-; years 
on the reservation has been to promote the use of, develop and bet- 
ter the resources of the range; fencing projects to restrict tres- 
passing of livestock not belonging on the reservation; spring devel- 
opment, reservoir dam construction and deep wells dug to provide 
needed water for stock use; experimental and reseeding plotB as 
mentioned above; trails and truck roads to open up inaccessible 
areas of the reservation which were previously shut off from the 
tribe; rodent control to aid in exterminating rodents which are a 
liability to the range; and fire presuppreesion and suppression to 
save timber and range assets. These projects will prove of great 
value to the Utes as their livestock industry increases in im- 

Within the past year the Ute Mountain Utes have had re- 
stored to their reservation a small area north and west of Ute peak, 
of about 38,000 acres. The return of this land was indeed a bless- 
ing to them as they are very short of good summer range. Plans are 
being made to fence this area so that proper utilization of this 
land may be assured. The chief and his councilmen recently made a 
trip over this land, and it is planned to buy a few acres within the 
boundaries where range management plans make it essential. 

All of these advances, though they ere very gradual, are 
tending to raise the standard of living of the Ute Indians and help 
them to become self-supporting. It is fortunate for the Utes as 
well as for other Indians, that the government is abandoning its 
once paternal policy for. a more constructive one, whereby the Indian 
will gradually grasp responsibility little by little, instead of de- 
pending upon the "Great White Father" in Washington for everything. 
This will not be accomplished in a year, a decade, or even a genera- 
tion, but will come very slowly, but every step that we. can make in 
the right direction will help to accomplish the job. 


Hollow CCC-ID 
Camp' s orches- 
tra is well- 
known in East- 
ern Oklahoma. 
It furnished 
music, for ex- 
ample, at the 
recent Indian 
exposition held 
in Tulsa- 

♦ * * * 




By Thomas J. Duran, Arapaho, Sub -Foreman, CCC-ID, 

Wind River Agency, Wyoming 

At the beginning of the IECW program, now the CCC-ID, 
most of the young men here were without construction or engineer- 
ing work training of any kind. Even ordinary pick and shovel work 
was unknown to a great many of the young Indians. At present, as 
a result of our CCC-ID program, all truck drivers and operators 
of caterpillars, road graders, air compressors, Le Tourneau P & M 
gas motor shovels and operators of similar machinery, are local 
Indians. I could give a numher of examples of boys who have worked 
up into positions of responsibility. I might cite one instance 
which shows the feeling of responsibility and initiative fostered 
by CCC-ID work here: 

While moving camp from Grangers, one of our truck drivers 
was sent to a certain dam to haul in the tumbler. Arrangements 
had been made with the senior foreman to send two trucks to help 
haul the rooter and the roller; due to an unexpected change of 
plans, however, they did not show up. The other truck driver, aft- 
er waiting for some time decided to load up and go home. How he 
did it alone is the question - but that evening he came into the 
post with the tumbler. This is the kind of young men that the 
CCC-ID is turning out: men who do not fail and men who use good 


For the third year, the voluntary undertakings of stock 
reduction made by the Pueblos have been kept to the letter. Acoma 
and Laguna Pueblos are thus supplementing government conservation 
measures in the combined effort to heal ranges badly damaged by 


M0TL5 rfcOM WEEKLY PftOQBl&S *£P0ttT3 OF 

E eduction In Tire Hazard At 
Tort Totten ( North Dakota ) It ap- 
pears as if the great danger for 
brush and prairie fires is now ov- 
er. A good rain and a little snow 
have put out what stumps were still 
burning and moistened the leaves 
and grass to such an extent that 
new fires will not start very easi- 
ly. Christian A. Huber , Junior En- 
gineer . 

Forest Stand Improvement At 
Tongue River ( Montana ) Although the 
weather has turned quite a hit cool- 
er , it is still so dry that we are 
keeping the lookouts on duty. The 
heavy grass is a real fire hazard. 
The forest stand improvement crew 
logged during the first part of the 
week. The tractor broke down and 
the men were brought into the mill 
to clean up the grounds. This work 
has helped to further reduce the 
fire hazard. Tom M. Akins - 

Progress On Stock Water Reser - 
voirs At Five Civilized Tribes (Ok- 
lahoma ) Our CCC-ID men have been 
doing some emergency work on stock 
water reservoirs during the past 
week. One of these reservoirs was 
getting very low due to the dry 
weather we have been having for the 
past two months . Since it had pre- 
viously been stocked with fish by 
the state game warden, it was nec- 
essary to remove these fish to an- 
other reservoir in order that they 
might not perish. A spillway on 
the reservoir to which they were 
transferred was rebuilt to prevent 
the fish from washing out during 
overflow stage. Tony Winlock - 

Snowstorm At Wind River ( Wyo - 
ming ) PTom four to ten Inches of 
snow fell here recently. This storm 
has ended the fire hazard for this 
year . Carl D. Rawie , Forest Super - 
visor . 

Horse Trail Construction At 
Mission ( California ) Work here con- 
tinued on horse trail construction. 
This trail is now completed to the 
fence line and will give good access 
to lands heretofore inaccessible and 
for fire protection. At the start 
it was winding up a canyon, and 
leveling off on the top of the fol- 
lowing ridge. 

Work has also been started on 
the fence project. Posts were 
hauled from the Pala stores and 
some have been taken up the trail 
to the fence location. Actual con- 
struction of the fence will start 
during the coming week. E. A. Vitt , 
Project Manager . 

Camp Educational Program . Under 
Way At Flathead ( Montana ) The camp 
educational program got well under 
way this week. We had two meetings; 
the first, a general meeting, was 
for everyone in camp and included 
talks by the camp assistant and Mr. 
Maywald, WPA instructor, about the 
possibilities of an enrollee pro- 
gram for the winter . After much 
discussion concerning the various 
courses that might be taught, it 
was decided to begin classes in a 
rithmetic and grammar. Thursday 
night was set as the date for the 
first grammar class. After class, 
the camp assistant appointed two 


members to assist the chairman of 
the social committee in arranging a 
party. On Monday nights the class 
in arithmetic will he conducted. On 
Wednesday nights of each week a safe- 
ty meeting will he held. As soon as 
the spike camps come hack to the base 
camp, classes in first-aid will com- 
mence. Eugene Mai lie t . 

Activities At Pine Ridge (South 
Dakota ) Last week there was a crew 
of thirty riders gathered at the 
camp to help corral the buffalo and 
sort out the ones that will be left 
in the south pasture. The riders 
had a wonderful day and there was 
little trouble in getting the buf- 
falo into the corral. 

There was a large crowd present 
to see the buffalo corralled and 
moving pictures were taken while the 
men were culling the few old cows 
that were left in the scuth pasture- 
After the few were separated from 
the herd, they were taken to the 
north pasture for the winter. There 
was plenty of excitement while the 
buffalo were in the corral, and while 
they were being separated. No acci- 
dents occurred and everyone thought 
that what they had witnessed was 
worth-while . 

Two of the wild turkeys were 
killed and fed to the riders, while 
the American Horse Day School do- 
nated the potatoes and carrots. 
Paul Valandry , Camp Attendant . 

Activities At Osage ( Oklahoma ) 
Mr. A- B. Finney, Camp Supervisor 
from the Oklahoma City Office was 
a recent visitor here. He was here 
in the interest of the enrollee 
program. We have inaugurated some- 
thing new in the line of entertain- 
ment in the enrollee program by 

turning over the meeting to a dif- 
ferent crew each week to furnish 
entertainment. This week Clark 
Panther's lime crew furnished us 
with some very fine entertainment 
and next week the program will be 
turned over to the W. J. Tayriens 
Fairfax Crew and we hope they can 
do as well as the lime crew did. 

Work here has retarded some- 
what due to the dry condition of 
the ground - it has been almost too 
dry to dig forms for the dams- The 
pond crews and the tractor crew have 
also found it very hard on the teams 
and machinery working under such 
conditions- We are hoping for some 
rain soon to alleviate this condi- 
tion and speed up the work- Willi - 
am Labadie • 

Landscaping At Colorado River 
( Arizona ) Seven men started work 
on Project #55, which consists of 
landscaping by clearing, leveling 
and adding more gravel to prepare 
the base course of tennis courts 
for an application of asphalt. It 
was necessary to move one sewer man- 
hole from the playing area and to 
reconstruct about forty feet of six- 
inch sewer. It is the plan to stab- 
ilize the base and then place a one- 
inch wearing surface of plant-mixed 
asphalt and sand. Lyle F. Warnock , 
Road Engineer . 

Game Protection At Fort Apache 
( Arizona ) Gates have been put on 
some of the roads so that closed 
areas may be protected during the 
hunting season. One warden has 
moved into Paradise Ranch. Silas C- 
Davis , Senior For est Ranger . 

Educational Program At Sha wnee 
( Oklahoma ) Offers New Op-Gortunities 
Our boys were glad to hear that a 


program has been worked out whereby 
we will have the opportunity of 
studying one of the following courses: 
leather work, mechanics, arithmetic, 
civil engineering, or agriculture. 
We may make our own selection of sub- 

At our safety meeting this week, 
our discussion centered around the 
correct use of tools . Harold Abra- 
ham . 

Work At Warm Springs ( Oregon ) 
On Project #106 the crew has burned 
about one -quarter mile of brush and 
old stumps and old limbs . These 
constitute a fire hazard in the sum- 
mer time when careless smokers drive 
along in the forests. The crew on 
Project #23 has completed cleaning 
and leveling the trail to Lookout 
Butte, which about ends the trail 
maintenance work for this year. 

The kitchen crew has been very 
busy this week. They have cleaned 
the storerooms and the meat house, 
together with the kitchen itself. 

The beetle control crew has 
progressed very nicely this week. 
They have covered about 450 acres; 
this is considered good as they 
have a long drive to their work. 

Project #112: They have been 
teaching three boys how to bug and 
how to run a compass. One boy has 
been taught how to use powder. All 
have learned quickly. Dan Nichols . 

Fire Presuppression At Winne - 
bago (Nebraska) A fire was recent- 
ly reported by the lookout. In a- 
bout two and one-half hours the 
fire was under control. The fire 
did not do much damage to the tim- 
ber as it was in the open. However - 

evidence showed that the fire was be- 
gun through the carelessness or ne- 
glect of some passer-by. 

Soil conservation work on the 
various Omaha reservations is going 
forward in "tip -top" form. We have 
our crews more or less stabilized, 
and, of course, this gives more ex- 
perienced men to work with. We are 
putting in wire check dams and have 
started on the second timber flume. 
R. P. Detling . 

Homestead Farmers Pleased At 
Chilocco School ( Oklahoma ) The home- 
stead farmers here are very much 
pleased with the division fences. 
These fences will give them a chance 
to pasture their stock fields in the 
fall. Achan Pappan , Assistant . 

Crew In Fine Spirits At ( Nez 
PerceT"Northern Idaho ( Idaho ) As 
far as the work here is concerned, 
the crew is right up to the "notch" 
and the men are all in high spirits . 
Amos Powaukee • 

Safety Class Held At Colville 
( Washington ) We have held our safe- 
ty meetings regularly and feel quite 
confident that many accidents have 
been prevented due to precautions 
taken by the men as a result of 
these meetings. Ray Taulau . 

New Course In Automotive And 
Tractor Operation At Great Lakes 
( Wisconsin ) Beginning in October, 
enrollees from the Lac Courte Oreil- 
les, Bad River, Red Cliff andL'Anse 
Reservations were assembled for a 
peripd of approximately one month 
during which time they took part in 
a course of intensive study of auto- 
motive and tractor operation. Dan - 
iel J . Poler , Assistant . 



ii hum 111 him 

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